Contract LawWhat is NDA in Turkish Law

NDA in Turkish Law is paramount in today’s world, where information is power and safeguarding sensitive data is key. One of the key legal tools used to protect confidential information is the Non-disclosure Agreement (NDA). This legally binding contract helps establish a confidential relationship between parties to ensure that certain information remains secret. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore everything you need to know about NDAs.

I. What is NDA?

A Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA), or a confidentiality agreement, is a legally binding contract which lays down the obligations of parties in accordance with Turkish Law of Obligation involved regarding the sharing and protection of certain confidential information. In essence, it is a promise to maintain secrecy. NDAs are often employed when businesses enter negotiations, facilitating the exchange of sensitive data without fear of it being disclosed to outsiders.

II. NDA in Turkish Law

NDAs serve a multitude of purposes in various situations. Typically, they are crucial when two or more businesses are contemplating partnerships and wish to safeguard their respective interests. NDAs ensure that all parties involved are prevented from disclosing business processes or plans of the other parties.

NDAs are also commonly employed when a business seeks funding from potential investors. In this context, the NDA prevents competitors from gaining access to trade secrets or business plans. However, it’s worth noting that many investors might be reluctant to sign NDAs due to the potential complications it could pose for their future deals with other companies.

Another common use of NDAs is during the hiring or termination of employees, especially those who will have access to sensitive company information. With an NDA in place, new hires are prevented from disclosing confidential information to future employers, or using it for personal gain. Similarly, departing employees are also bound by the NDA from using or disclosing confidential information post-termination.

III. Various Types of Non-Disclosure Agreements

NDAs can be tailored to suit specific scenarios, but they generally fall into one of the following categories:

  1. Mutual Agreement: This type of NDA is common in situations where two or more businesses are discussing potential partnerships. In such cases, all parties agree not to disclose information, as each side often receives sensitive data.

  2. Non-Mutual Agreement: Also known as a unilateral NDA, this type of agreement is typically used for new employees who have access to confidential company information. In this scenario, the employee is the only party signing the agreement and is prevented from sharing confidential information.

  3. Disclosure Agreement: This is essentially the opposite of a non-disclosure agreement. For instance, a doctor may require a patient to sign an agreement that allows the patient’s medical details to be shared with an insurer. This agreement provides one party with the authority to share personal information without the risk of being sued for doing so.

IV. Essential Elements of an NDA

While NDAs can be customized to suit any circumstance, there are six major components that are generally considered crucial to any non-disclosure agreement:

  1. The Parties Involved: Every NDA must clearly specify who the parties involved are. For the party receiving the sensitive information, this could be an individual, all employees of a company, or any representative of the company.

  2. Definition of Confidential Information: It’s essential for an NDA to clearly state what information is considered to be confidential. It is the responsibility of the disclosing party to identify what information must not be shared.

  3. Exclusions from Confidentiality: In some cases, it may be easier to define what isn’t confidential. These types of agreements allow a company to state that all information shared with an external party is to be confidential, except for specific items determined by that company.

  4. Appropriate Use of Information: In some instances, a company may state that no information is confidential, but restrict how the recipient may use the information.

  5. Time Period: Many pieces of proprietary information lose their relevance or value over time. Therefore, companies often define a time period after which the information is no longer deemed confidential.

  6. Other/Miscellaneous Provisions: The NDA can be customized to serve any need. Different industries may have different requirements, and government agencies may have stricter rules on maintaining the confidentiality of sensitive information. This section may also detail the applicable state laws and which party pays attorney fees in the case of a dispute.

V. Information Protected by NDAs

NDAs offer an array of possibilities for companies to protect themselves. Typically, NDAs shield the following types of information:

  1. Customer Information: This includes major customers, their contact information, and their preferences. It could also include any direct communications with customers.

  2. Financial Information: This refers to specific financial information related to any customer or any financial information not required to be publicly disclosed. This type of information is often more tied to cost accounting information rather than financial accounting information.

  3. Intellectual Property: This includes patents, copyrights, trade secrets, technologies, and anything a company uses as a competitive advantage.

  4. Marketing Information: This includes processes, billing policies, pricing strategies, and advertising techniques.

  5. Operating Information: This includes employee data, supplier information, information related to payroll, or any aspect of internal costs required to operate the company that is not required to be publicly disclosed.

VI. Limitations to NDAs

While NDA in Turkish Law are powerful tools for protecting sensitive information, they do have certain limitations. NDAs cannot contain specific pieces of information if the information is common knowledge or already in the public domain. This includes any information that may be widely known or considered public knowledge. Additionally, information that the recipient of the NDA already knows before receiving the agreement cannot be included in the agreement. Furthermore, information that can be determined via independent research or rightfully obtained from a third party cannot be defined as confidential.

VII. Pros and Cons of NDAs

Like any legal tool, NDA in Turkish Law come with their own set of advantages and disadvantages.


  • Ensures that sensitive company information is kept confidential
  • Offers clarity on what information can and cannot be shared
  • Relatively low cost to create
  • Outlines the repercussions of disclosing prohibited information


  • Can foster an atmosphere of mistrust
  • May deter top-tier talent from joining the company
  • Risk of souring the relationship with current employees
  • Potential for lawsuits if breached

VIII. NDA in Turkish Law in Practice: A Real-World Example

A prime example of a company that uses NDA in Turkish Law extensively is Apple. Known for its secrecy, Apple keeps its technology and future products under wraps until the company is ready to unveil them. This strategy is designed to deter competitors from stealing trade secrets and copying its products. It also helps generate buzz as a marketing strategy.

IX. Consequences of Breaching an NDA

Violating an NDA can lead to severe legal consequences. While not considered a crime, depending on the nature of the violation, it can be deemed a criminal act, especially in cases of theft of trade secrets. Typically, a person or entity that breaks an NDA will face a lawsuit, which could result in a monetary fine, termination of employment, or the return of an asset, depending on what was agreed upon in the contract.

X. Key Points

NDAs are an efficient, low-cost way to create legally binding documents that ensure private information remains confidential. They’re commonly used by organizations and individuals to protect their businesses or personal information. NDAs facilitate business collaborations by mitigating the risk of private information falling into the hands of competitors. When drafting an NDA, it’s important to be as detailed as possible, so all parties are aware of what can and cannot be shared, as well as the repercussions of leaking information.

In conclusion, understanding NDAs is crucial for anyone dealing with sensitive information. Whether you’re a business owner, an employee, or a potential investor, having a good grasp of NDAs can help you protect your interests and navigate the business world with confidence.

At Istanbul Law Office, we specialize in contract law and provide expert guidance and representation. Our English-speaking lawyers offer comprehensive legal services across various practice areas. For professional help with NDAs, or any other legal service, feel free to contact our team.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the Purpose of an NDA in Turkish Law?

The purpose of an NDA in Turkish law is to ensure the confidentiality of information exchanged between parties. It serves as a legally binding contract that restricts the parties from disclosing the confidential information to third parties or using it for unauthorized purposes.

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2. How Can I Draft an NDA?

Drafting an NDA requires a clear understanding of the information to be protected, the parties involved, and the restrictions on the use of the information. It’s advisable to seek legal assistance from a contract lawyer in Istanbul to ensure that the NDA is comprehensive and legally binding.

3. What Are the Consequences of Breaching an NDA?

Breaching an NDA can lead to severe legal consequences, including lawsuits, monetary fines, termination of employment, or the return of an asset, depending on the terms of the contract.

4. What Types of Information Can an NDA Protect?

An NDA can protect a wide range of information, including customer information, financial data, intellectual property, marketing strategies, and operating information. However, it cannot protect information that is common knowledge, already in the public domain, or rightfully obtained from a third party.

5. Is an NDA Forever?

The duration of an NDA depends on the terms specified in the contract. Some NDAs have a defined period of time after which the information is no longer considered confidential, while others may stipulate that the confidentiality obligation continues indefinitely.


While NDAs are a powerful tool for protecting sensitive information, drafting and enforcing them can be complex. At the Istanbul Law Office, our experienced team of English-speaking lawyers are well-versed in Turkish law and can provide expert guidance on NDAs and other legal matters. Whether you’re a business owner, an employee or an investor, we can help you navigate the complexities of NDAs and protect your interests. Contact us today to schedule a consultation.